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Behavior Change as Value Proposition


by chris risdon 0 Comments


There’s a lot of academic research around the areas of persuasive technology and design for behavior change. It’s getting more exposure as technology has allowed products and services to have an increasingly pervasive role in people’s lives.

But where does persuasion live? How do we recognize these products in the wild? And what has caused the tipping point for the growth of these products and services?

Data, Feedback, and Smart Products

The primary characteristic of our new, pervasively connected world is the ability to collect data passively (think Runkeeper or or with minimal effort required (Foursquare). And not just collect the data, but present it back—via feedback loops and visualizations—in a meaningful way to the user. These are smart products that have personalized intelligence about our behavior.

We can see lots of examples of products that don’t utilize data that are designed to influence behavior. These are “dumb products.” Which doesn’t mean that they’re dumb in the derisive sense, but products that contain no intelligence about the person who uses them. Take for example the oft-cited bitter nail polish that’s designed to keep people from biting their nails. It’s a good example of persuasive design. But it contains one single universal feedback loop for every person who uses it—the bitterness you taste when you bite your nails.
But now we have an explosion of smart products, which passively collect data about you and your specific behavior, and tell you a story which is designed to directly influence you. This is a byproduct of our Internet of Things progress—now even our toothbrushes and dog leashes can be outfitted with sensors to collect data about our personal behavior. Now that sensors are available at the consumer level—GPS, accelerometers, RFID—anything can become a data-collecting smart product.
I refer to this wave of products and services as “Behavior Change as Value Proposition.” These are products that have an explicit or implicit value proposition based on influencing your behavior. They’ve been around for a long time: smoking cessation and weight lose programs just to name a couple. But these highly personal solutions are exponentially enabled thanks to sensor technology.

Telling Stories with Data

We’ve been telling stories and layering in context with data forever. One of the more famous examples, championed by Edward Tufte, shows Charles Minard’s map of Napoleon’s 1812 march into Russia. It layers geographic data, chronological data, quantity (of soldiers), temperature over time, and more. The data tells a rich visual story, which of course could influence behavior. But the feedback loop is, of course, after the fact, and the data collection was likely rigorous and time-consuming. (you can imagine now how this information is collected in real-time and influences military campaigns in real-time)

Where Persuasion Lives

Where do these new products and services map on our landscape of products and services?
Let’s look at a spectrum, where on one end you have utility: something designed to offer the user useful tools, typically to manage information. On the other end is “persuasion” the idea that what is designed is intended to influence the behavior, perception or attitude of the user. Clearly it’s not binary. It’s plotting on the spectrum is based on the intent of the designer and the value to the consumer.
You can imagine the traditional utility application. (quadrant #1) Gmail helps you manage your email. iTunes lets you manage your music files. Flickr your images. Basecamp for project management. They’re designed—to various extents—to enable you to manage information, or “digital objects,” with a certain amount  of flexibility. Sort how you want, list how you want, tag how you want, equalize how you want, group how you want, share how you want, etc.
At their core, they’re value propositions as utilities designed to make your life easier. Some more configurable, others more constrained, but utilities nonetheless.
But what about this new wave of products? (quadrant #2) Products not designed around your digital “things” but around your behaviors? Products that are designed to influence. We see products like, Nike+ and Runkeeper; Weight Watchers and NutriSystem; Nest for energy consumption. This is just a small sampling of products where the value proposition is directly related to your behavior. They have high “awareness of intent” because of their declared value propositions relating to influencing your behavior. The intent is key. They balance persuasion in the interest of the customer.
(Regarding quadrant #3, persuasion of someone strictly in your own benefit or self-interest is manipulation. Not declaring your intent, and particularly concealing it, is deception. Clearly when a service seeks to hide it’s intent, and/or persuade strictly for it’s own self-interest, you are in the ethical muck.)
All these are based on collecting data and providing feedback loops. They turn data into information, which tells a story, which in turn, influences how you make decisions and act on the knowledge.
Imagine how you got feedback on your finances 20+ years ago. You had to manually enter your transactions into your check register (in research terms, it required you to self report your purchases). This was unreliable, and your feedback loop was a (less than accurate) balance, and a scannable list of your transactions. It’s hard to tell a story with any meaning, beyond simply how much you had in your account.
Then came spreadsheets, which made some of the work easier, doing the adding and subtracting and allowing you to more easily scan these transactions over time. But it was still manual reporting and didn’t present a story which had a lot of meaning or richness.
In the 90s we got Microsoft Money and Intuit’s Quicken, they initially still required manual entry—self reporting—but now they did the heavy lifting with the feedback loops, allowing you to visualize your data in a number of ways over time, telling a rich story from your raw data. This made it more effective in influencing behaviors around your finances, saving and spending.
Now we have applications like, which—once you hand over your log-in credentials—collects your financial behavior data completely passively and accurately, telling a rich story about your finances over time through visualizations, as well as other feedback loops such as alerts and product recommendations. We’ve gone from utilities that had a relatively neutral intent to manage your information to an application that wanted to make that information more actionable, influencing your future behavior based on visualized feedback.

Scaling Self-determination, Pushing Persuasion

Services like are still at the surface a utility (manage your financial data), with an implicit intent to influence your behavior around your finances (set goals, spend smarter). You still have a lot of self-determination with regards to how you harness your information to influence your behavior.
But more and more products are having an explicit influence, with a more prescriptive way to use them. They require you to increasingly relinquish self-determination as a prerequisite for use. Consider Ready for Zero, a service that helps you reduce your debt and curb your spending. While someone who uses the service opts in to use it, the service is basically a “tunnel” or wizard (guided persuasion), with limited options to what’s prescribed by the system. This makes the product more niche than a service like, but it will have a more direct, measurable impact on your behavior, which many people are seeking.
It will be interesting to see how far these products and services go. There’s an increasing demand for services that further constrain choices and self-determination in order to see tangible results. And how businesses balance applying behavior design principles in a way that provides them sustainable business models while maintaining explicit consumer value will be a critical challenge. Even services that use incentives, at their core, require intrinsic motivation to engage with them (the internal motivation to use them, in contrast to an external incentive like a financial reward).
Most people know that the Amazon One-Click feature is designed to influence you to purchase more, even if it also has consumer value in making your purchase easier. While there is an awareness that we are being influenced with these products, actually asking for this influence in our lives, as we become familiar with the principles, patterns and heuristics, will these techniques continue to be effective? At some point the customer will know exactly what terms such as “social proof” mean. The question is, when that happens, will it still be persuasive? Like many things that seem mysterious in the beginning, consumers eventually end up paying attention to the man behind the curtain.


This entry was posted on Thursday, April 19, 2012 at 3:34 pm.

There’s a further extreme, in helping manage destructive behaviours using proven scientific techniques for encouraging behaviour change, such as CBT. A relatively new web app for solving sleep problems called launched this year, using many of the digital and modern techniques seen in apps like Mint, or leveraging community/peer support, to cure health issues. Tools like Sleepio have been published in medical journals, so I can only assume its a matter of time before health practitioners start using persuasive apps as a matter of course for a range of issues: insomnia, smoking, weight loss, anxiety, violent behaviour.



UX Strategy as told by the paintings of Jan Steen

3 Lessons For Any Startup From The Instagram Acquisition

The top story in tech in the last 24 hours is the acquisition of instagram by Facebook for $1 billion in cash or stock.  It seems like a rocket ship of a success story, from Stanford graduates to millionaires with over joyed investors in just a couple of years.  This made it a hot topic in the opening of our NUvention Web class today.  There is a temptation for students and entrepreneurs to read about Instagram and take some of the wrong lessons (the subject of the next post) from their rise; but in looking through their story, and what they’ve built, there are 3 clear lessons Mike Marasco and I came up with that any student or new startup should look at that indicate that instagram masterfully practiced:

Develop the simplest solution to the customer problem, then iterate on what resonates FAST

Instagram is a definite case of getting out of the building rather than having the single grand idea upfront and persisting.   At its founding in 2010, the initial idea  was for burbn, an app in the gowalla/foursquare vein (Instagram founder Kevin Systrom describes it in this interview starting at 16:30).   In textbook customer development fashion, the team learned a lot from developing this experience; in particular: First, html 5 was too slow relative to a native app and second the features users used most was sharing pictures.   So despite feeling like the space was crowded, the team pivoted to focus on photo applications.   Central to the Instagram principles, was the idea of building a very simple user interface to the application.  Simplicity is hard work from a design perspective, but reaps rewards downstream in two important ways:  First, in terms of minimizing the number of features developed; and second streamlining the user interface to the essential elements.   Some of this comes back to a principal that Chris Riesbeck, one of our faculty team for NUvention Web, describes as the “one button” application.   A one button application is a solution to your customer’s problem where the value proposition requires only one button.    This can also be about the hard computer science work.   Instagram focused on a key feature users always want—speed.

Build a cost effective method of customer acquisition and insure they are yours for keeps

If you look at the employee composition of Instagram, you will notice its mostly developers with a few community managers.   No big local sales force like groupon.   No one in business development to do deals.  Efficiently focused on building the sales mechanism into the product and having people understand and give feedback on the community.   The founders had great User experience and product management experience (in addition to technical experience).   Also, while the differentiated proposition was around the simple User Experience, streamlined upload and process, posting to mutliple social networks and filters to make photos look great; it created its social network from the get go.  In addition, the team did smart research to find the set of influencers that would love what they were doing by looking at who they wanted to reach as influencers in tech; as well as those people who would really be excited about the capabilities of the application (i.e. photographers with lots of twitter followers).   A good focus on continued PR coupled with great ways of capturing, keeping and referring customers was key.   Great execution can also not be underestimated either—the initial MVP was high quality enough that the influencers wanted to use it; and the team was manically focused on preventing any fail whale type of scenario that would cause customer dissatisfaction.  This meant the cost to get each incremental users was inexpensive after the features were in the system; and that a lot of money didn’t need to be spent on “support” to re-win them once the became disengaged or unsatisfied.

Leverage and focus on existing networks to bootstrap your own

While Instagram now has its own substantial network (27 million users according to the industry reports); The app didn’t work with just its own social network, rather it’s principal benefit was that it made it easy to post great photos to twitter (and facebook).   This meant that the application had value for the first person that used it—and not just making the photo look good; but sharing the way people wanted to share.   The other network Instagram focused on was iPhone users—and hear the focus was important.   The team didn’t try to boil the ocean but until very recently stayed manically focused onApple iPhone—even to the extent that the web experience is minimalist compared to what’s in the iPhone app.  iOS was the right choice for two reasons: It had the largest consistent platform at the time of launch and the gaps in the built-in photo experience fit well with the advantages of instagram (better photos, multi social net connection).   The focus on iPhone also let the team keep performance for the user and simplicity of the experience at the center of what they did.

Sears’ PHD Of Social Media Explains How Brands Can Create Orbits To Pull In Customers


Mark Bonchek, SVP of Communities and Networks for Sears Holdings, has been a pioneer in social engagement since the 1990s when he received the first Ph.D. granted by Harvard on the subject of social media. Since then he has worked with organizations ranging from IBM to The Economist to the U.S. Department of Education. His current focus is the transformation of Sears as an integrated retailer and social enterprise.

Brandon Gutman: Mark, there’s a lot of talk these days about social media. Is it just a lot of hype, or is there really something revolutionary going on?

Mark Bonchek: There is something revolutionary going on, but not in the way people often think. This is about a lot more than generating Likes on Facebook and followers on Twitter. We are in the midst of a fundamental shift from mass communication to mass collaboration. This is the first time in our history that we can work together on a global scale. This type of communication revolution doesn’t happen very often. The last one was Gutenberg’s printing press over 500 years ago. Gutenberg democratized information, enabling mass communication to an audience. Radio, newspapers, and television were variations on this theme. With social technologies, we are not only consumers of information, but producers and co-creators.  This democratization of collaboration and creation is the real social revolution.

How well are companies adapting to this social revolution?

Most companies are still stuck in old ways of thinking. But you really can’t blame them. It took three hundred years for Gutenberg’s revolution to play out. The democratization of information led to the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution, and eventually the Industrial Revolution. This in turn led to the modern corporation as we know it. At this point, we are only about a decade into the social revolution, and it will take a while to adjust our mental models from audiences to communities and re-design our institutions from hierarchies to networks.

What does this mean for brands and marketing?

In the past, brands could control the message. But not any more. Marketing has become like a political campaign. Every message gets thrown into the social spin cycle. This is a big change for marketers trained in traditional advertising, with its focus on segments and channels. Marketing is now more about sociology than psychology. Brands need to focus on the social context of their customers’ lives. Do they create a sense of social identity? Can they create social currencies that help customers connect with each other?




How is this changing the relationship between brands and customers?

The relationship is becoming more peer-to-peer. You can see this on Facebook. With the latest changes, brand pages look a lot like personal pages. As brands become more like peers, they need to behave more like people:  personal, reciprocal, and authentic.  It’s the difference between being a speaker on a stage and the host of a dinner party. A good host doesn’t lecture or talk too much about themselves. They focus on sparking the conversation and connecting people. They keep the party buzzing. A social brand does the same for its community.

At the last Brand Innovators Summit, you created some buzz yourself with the concept of customer orbits. Can you elaborate?

In a social age, people don’t like to be pushed. Brands need to find creative ways to attract customers. Imagine a solar system with your brand at the center. Just as gravity keeps planets in orbit around the sun, companies can create gravitational fields to keep customers in orbit around their brand. This gravitational field is not about advertising. It’s about creating real value that goes beyond the products you sell. Some examples include Google’s search engine, Apple’s iTunes software, and Nike’s FuelBand. These are gravity generators that deliver high-frequency, high-value interactions.

How do you create this kind of gravitational field to pull in customers?

First, start with the 3 P’s: Purpose, Platforms, and Partners. Find a shared Purpose around which you can deliver services that create value for your customer. Then create an engagement Platform to deliver that value. Social networks and mobile technologies make it possible to create these platforms with incredible ease. There are many sources of value around which to build your engagement platform. The most common are content, conversation, collaboration, contribution, and commerce. Finally, look for collaborative Partners who can bring additional credibility, resources, or reach.




How is Sears putting these ideas into practice?

We start by recognizing that social technologies are fundamentally transforming retail. Our customers want to shop anytime, anywhere. It is no longer about choosing between shopping online or shopping in the store; it is increasingly about both. We therefore must deliver an integrated retail experience across all channels. But this is only table stakes in the new world of retail. We must evolve beyond a transactional relationship with our customers to a social experience that is personal, engaging and rewarding.

As an example, our FitStudio community is build around our market-leading position in fitness equipment. In our stores, interactive technologies and expert consultants help customers find the right equipment. Online, the FitStudio community helps people achieve their fitness and weight loss goals. As an orbit strategy, FitStudio combines shared purpose (fitness), engagement platforms (store and online community), and collaborative partners (trainers and wellness experts).

Do these ideas apply to smaller companies? If so, how should they get started?

Remember that social is about building human relationships. Take an inventory of your social assets (knowledge, values, and relationships) and look for ways of creating social currencies (things people can share). Also keep in mind what each type of social technology is good for. Facebook is about conversation. Think about what your customers like to talk about, and about which you have something to contribute to the conversation. Twitter is about notification. What do your customers want to be informed about related to your business? As an example, a restaurant might put out a daily Tweet with the daily special, and create a Facebook page where they post favorite recipes or items they are considering adding to the menu. In general, there are lots of places to start. The key is to be less transactional and more human, and do less pushing and more pulling.

Follow Brandon on Twitter at

Find more of my content about brand leaders at

Designing a Mobile App? Don’t Make These 10 Mistakes

The Mobile App Trends Series is presented by Sourcebits, a leading product developer for mobile platforms. Sourcebits offers design and development services for iOS, Android, Mobile and Web platforms. Follow Sourcebits on Twitter for recent news and updates.

So you’ve already learned how to navigate the tricky world of cross-platform app design and worked through all of the common pitfalls of developing your app. You have a vision, some inspiration and maybe even a name that you know will be perfect. So … now what?

[More from Mashable: How the #BullyMovie Twitter Campaign Triumphed Over the MPAA]

It’s time to get down to the nitty-gritty and begin designing the structure, flow and features that will combine to form your finished mobile app. But actually performing these tasks isn’t easy — there are tons of moving parts and project management aspects to keep in mind during development. Developing a functioning and enjoyable mobile app requires discipline and practicality. If you don’t tend to the nuts and bolts of production, you’re putting yourself at risk for disaster.

These mobile design “don’ts” will help any mobile designer avoid some messy obstacles, so make sure to keep them in mind. Your app — and your sanity — will thank you for it.

[More from Mashable: Instagram Rockets to No. 1 in App Store in Wake of Facebook Deal]

1. Don’t Begin Wireframes or Designs Without a Flowmap



Have a well-thought-out user flow ready to go before wireframes and designs begin. Even simple applications should have a well-considered flowmap in place to help ensure a logical and reasonable navigational structure.

Another thing to pay attention to is making sure that key functional screens are close to the top rather than buried beneath multiple levels of navigational elements. Skipping the flowmap and simply designing or wiring screens without a plan is the easiest way to create a convoluted flow that leaves users confused and turned off.

2. Don’t Disregard the Development Budget

Everything a designer creates will have to go through a developer in order to bring those designs to life. Sometimes very simple design changes can make the difference between a feature that takes a few hours to build and one that takes a few days. Be weary of over-defining functionality in the design.

In other words, the design should not dictate the functionality. For example, an app might have been planned to have a search box, one the designer envisions with a type-ahead search that generates live results as the user types. But this can be a significant developmental undertaking to properly implement, and the designer should not be the sole decision-maker for such a significant element.

3. Don’t Start With Low Resolutions & Avoid Bitmaps

Always design for retina, high-res, pixel-dense screens first, then scale down. This should be obvious to any serious designer but it’s still worth mentioning. As the number of common screen resolutionson mobile devices continues to expand (iOS alone has 4 different resolutions to worry about), always start with the highest resolution device and scale down from there. Even better: Design with vector graphics rather than scale-challenged bitmaps or rasterized graphics.

4. Don’t Undersize The Hit Area

Remember that most users’ index fingers are 1.6 to 2 cm wide. Take into account the width of a finger, plus the fact that users are moving quickly and aren’t able to reliably tap a tiny area of the screen. It’s all too easy to pack lots of buttons and functionality into a screen, but be sure to always make buttons big enough — and spaced enough — to be easily tapped by users.

5. Don’t Gratuitously Use Intro Animations

Those fun little animations when an app first opens can be really nice, but it’s important not to go overboard with them. The catch with intro animations (Path and Thrillist’s JackThreads have cool ones) is that they technically can’t begin until the app is already loaded. So in effect, they actually delay the user from accessing the app. If you’re going to use one, make it quick, subtle and appealing enough to be worth the extra second or so that the user has to wait.

As an app loads, a still image should display, which then transitions into an animation. Make sure the transition is seamless. Some poor implementations have a jump or glitch as the app transitions from the still loading image to the intro animation, and that’s no fun.

6. Don’t Leave Users Hanging

Leaving the user out of the loop when the app is loading or processing could cause users to think the app is malfunctioning. It’s also just a poor experience.

Don’t keep your users waiting on a blank screen while the app is loading content from the web. Use loading indicators and animations to give users a heads up that the app is working, but it’s just waiting on the phone or the network. A progress indicator is even better, but it’s worth checking with your developers or having a backup plan before designing them into the interface (per our second tip).

7. Don’t Blindly Copy Style From Other Operating Systems



Bad conversions from one mobile OS to another can confuse and annoy users. Every mobile OS has its own style and the OS’s creator has probably published detailed Human Interface Guidelines that have codified their unique aesthetic. iPhoneAndroid and Windows Phone 7 have very different aesthetics. For example, an app on the iPhone that uses the WP7’s block-layout and navigation style would be unfamiliar and confusing to users.

It’s not necessary to make every app look like it was built by the operating system’s creator, but be careful not to make the app look like it doesn’t belong on the platform.

8. Don’t Overstuff Pixel-Dense Screens

When designing for high PPI (pixel per inch) displays, there can be a temptation to fit more into an interface because you have more pixels to play with. This is especially true if you’re reviewing designs on an 27-inch high-res display, where even the most busy interfaces will have plenty of room to breathe. Remember to preview all your work on the actual device you’re designing for, even if it’s just a screengrab in the device’s photo viewer.

Overstuffing an interface can result in an app that’s cluttered and difficult to navigate. In the worst cases, critical parts of the interface may actually be downright impossible to see.

9. Don’t Assume Everyone Will Use Your App The Same Way You Do

Usability testing is a must, no matter how good your app looks. Consider organizing a closed beta to small group of trusted people (including a few experienced designers) and update the interface before releasing the app to the public.

Another easy way to get some decent feedback on the cheap is to put up a Craigslist ad for a testing focus group. Target college students who would be willing to come in and play around with a pre-release app in exchange for a few bucks and some pizza.

10. Don’t Forget About Gestures, But Don’t Abuse Them Either

Keep in mind that not every single element of the interface has to be fully visible or easy to get to immediately.

A great example is the deletion process in the Mail app for iPhone. In the inbox view, a user can swipe a message to reveal a delete button. This is a shortcut that saves the user the hassle of tapping “edit,” selecting a message to delete and then tapping delete. But it’s a balance: The “delete” shortcut is a way to quickly remove an email, while the “edit” menu is reserved for those who don’t know about the shortcut or who want to take advanced actions such as deleting or flagging multiple messages at a time.

In other words, keep gestures in mind, but don’t become overly reliant on them. And generally avoid using a gesture-accessed menu or action as the only point of access.


If there’s a single unifying element to all these design faux pas, it’s that the best designs are carefully considered. It comes down to thinking critically and completely about your methods. Really think through what your users are trying to achieve and let that inform your designs. Don’t cut corners, don’t skip testing and don’t create designs that you wouldn’t put in your portfolio or use yourself.

Have you built a mobile app before and have some tips on what not to do? Let us know in the comments.

Series supported by Sourcebits





The Mobile App Trends Series is presented by Sourcebits, a leading developer of applications and games for all major mobile platforms. Sourcebits has engineered over 200 apps to date, with plenty more to come. Sourcebits offers design and development services for iPhoneAndroid and more. Please feel free to get in touch with us to find out how we can help your app stand apart in a crowded marketplace. Follow Sourcebits on Twitter and Facebook for recent news and updates.

Image courtesy of iStockphotoTommyL

This story originally published on Mashable here.

SECOND SCREENS AND SOCIAL TV – Making waves in the broadcast world

Second screening is the new way to consume broadcast content, with companies beginning to look at ways to control the way consumers second screen – and how to make money out of it. George Cole provides an overview of this 21st century viewing trend.

Second screen is making waves in the broadcast, social media and video worlds. In essence, second screen involves using a second display device, like a smartphone, laptop or tablet, while watching television. Many people are now second screening: research by Nielsen found that 70% of tablet users and 68% of smartphone owners used their device while watching television.

“There are a lot of stats that show that a very large percentage of people who watch TV are doing it with a second screen on their lap,” says Chuck Parker, former Chief Commercial Officer of Technicolor. “Now there’s some debate about whether they are using the second screen for emailing or checking their bank balance, but there a large percentage who are on their Twitter feeds doing a realtime search on the TV show they’re watching or using Facebook to tell their friends what they’re watching. The TV and video industries are excited because this is a shift in consumer behaviour, and it’s probably the first time you can demonstrate to advertisers and content makers that real engagement is taking place.”

Social TV is a second screen activity. “Social TV is digital interaction between people about television content or their digital interaction with that content,” says Colin Donald, Director of research company Futurescape. He adds that the concept of Social TV is not new. “Television has always had a significant social dimension, as with viewing: together in the living room and having water cooler conversations at work. One key reason that Social TV participation is growing is because it meets some of our most fundamental social needs, such as self-expression and affiliation with others through shared cultural references.”

Dan Cryan, Senior Analyst, Head of Broadband Media, at media research company IHS Screen Digest, agrees: “You now have a collection of companies who are tapping into a very well established mode of behaviour, with media companies trying to engage with this and maintain their relevance on the second screen.” Jeremy Toeman, Chief Product Officer, Dijit Media, says, “We’re seeing a lot of attempts to digitally harness the chatter around TV, much as the early days of ‘social media’ attempted to capture conversations around a myriad of topics.”

A poll conducted by the digital marketing agency Digital Clarity of more than 1,300 people under the age of 25 in the UK found that 80% of those surveyed use a mobile device to communicate with friends while watching TV, with 72% using Twitter, Facebook or mobile applications, to actively comment on shows as they are watching them. In the US, a Nielsen/Yahoo study found that more than 86% of mobile internet users communicated with each other in real-time during TV broadcasts. Reggie James, founder of Digital Clarity, says, “TV shows with small audiences can generate enormous traffic on Twitter. Social TV is a new platform for engaging with a TV show and has turned TV programmes into online events.”


The Social TV market is being driven by several factors: the massive growth of social network sites like Facebook and Twitter, the wide availability of broadband in homes, and the vast sales of connected devices like smartphones and tablets. Futuresource Consulting says that global shipments of tablets reached 15.5 million units in Q3 2011, compared with 4.5 million for the same period in 2010 – Apple accounted for 70% of tablet shipments in the US.

Many see the tablet as the perfect form factor for second screen usage. “The tablet is the device for the living room and the most socially acceptable device,” says Ajay Shah, CEO of TV Plus, a TV web browser company. “The tablet screen is parallel to the ground, whereas the screen on a smartphone or laptop is perpendicular, and closed off from others.”

Many parties are jostling for position in the second screen market including broadcasters, film studios, television manufacturers, advertisers, social network sites, technology developers, and start-up companies developing apps for second screen activities. “New DNA is coming into the broadcast world,” notes Alex Terpstra, CEO of technology company Civolution. “Broadcasters tend not to innovate quickly, but start-ups develop things fast. It will be exciting to see how things go.”

Start-up company zeebox has developed a second screen app. A survey of 5,000 people by zeebox and Lightspeed found that most people still watch live television, rather than recorded, but that there was much dissatisfaction with the medium, says Anthony Rose, zeebox co-founder and CTO. “People are frustrated with live television because it hasn’t kept up with the pace of innovation. On a computer, you can use Skype, email and watch a video, but TV just beams out at you. We found that 57% got around this frustration by using a second screen, and of these, 60% were using the second screen for a programme-related activity, such as doing a Google search on an actor.”

Little wonder that some broadcasters and programme makers have developed apps, websites or platforms to cater for the second screen. HBO Connect is a Social TV platform for fans of HBO programmes, where they can sign-in using their Facebook or Twitter account and discuss HBO shows with others. Ten US broadcast groups, including Barrington, Hearst and Raycomm, have formed a partnership with Social TV start-up ConnecTV. The broadcasting groups cover 76 million households and more than 200 stations, such as ABC, CBS and Fox. UK commercial broadcasters ITV and Channel 4 are developing second screen apps.

“Television companies throughout the value chain have good reason to support Social TV because they see its potential to increase ratings and therefore advertising revenue; boost pay-TV and video-on-demand income, and also work with paid transactions, such as talent show voting and merchandise sales,” says Donald. In US TV, there are ad breaks 18 minutes in every hour, but this level of advertising is not possible on a second screen device, notes Aslam Khader, Chief Technology and Product Officer for technology company Ensequence. “And so finding a way to monetize the second screen audience is difficult. The content industry wants second screen to augment the TV experience and not replace it.”

Connected TV (also known as Smart TV) systems are increasingly incorporating Social TV: many connected TV sets have Facebook and Twitter apps pre-installed. Donald observes: “Pay- TV operators are upgrading their set-tops for Social TV functionality, while the Xbox and PlayStation game consoles have their own social networks and can access third-party social networks; major tech companies such as Google, Yahoo and Microsoft are providing the software to enable connected TV and, with it, Social TV.”


he technology behind second screen products and systems is often quite complex, not least because most rely on apps and the ability to synchronize the television program with the second screen device. Chuck Parker classifies second screen app functions into various types. The first, which he calls ‘Simple’, is designed to make the first screen easier to navigate, with functions like an advanced remote control. ‘Social’ integrates with the various social networks such as Twitter and Facebook. ‘Seamless’ integrates multiple services into the experience such as Hulu, Netflix, and an operator’s VOD service. ‘Stimulating’ creates a more in-depth experience with the TV content, such as sports stats, related news events, commerce experiences, and associated advertising. ‘Discovery’ provides relevant suggestions to content you might enjoy. Another app feature is ‘Search’. Most second screen apps offer several or more of these features.

The key to synchronizing the TV program and the second screen device is a system known as automatic content recognition or ACR. One system, audio watermarking, adds inaudible data to the soundtrack in a way that combines sound and data into a single entity. “The advantage is that wherever the sound goes the watermark goes,” says Civolution’s Alex Terpstra. The second screen device uses a built-in microphone to pick up the TV sound and combined watermark. Watermark detection software on the second screen device analyzes the sound, finds the watermark and can retrieve any information within it. This information could include a channel identifier or even a content identifier, so the second screen device knows, for example, that ‘I’m now syncing with The X-Factor on Channel 9’. The information also contains time codes, which enable the second screen device to remain in sync with the TV content.

Audio fingerprinting involves the second screen device picking up the TV sound, but this time, no extra information is added to the sound. Fingerprinting works by analyzing unique features from the content and comparing them to a database of reference fingerprints to find a match. Fingerprinting requires the second screen devices to generate fingerprints from the TV sound, which are matched against reference fingerprints, which are often stored in the cloud. “Watermarking requires modifying content, but fingerprinting requires a reference database and an infrastructure for second screen devices to be able to access it,” says Terpstra. In both ACR systems, there’s no requirement for the first and second screen devices to communicate with each other via an internet connection.

However, a third synchronization system involves the television and second screen device syncing with each other through a shared Wi-Fi connection, although this system is rarely used, as most TVs don’t have internet connectivity. Sony’s Blu-ray second screen system is known as a vertically controlled environment, and uses a shared Wi-Fi connection to sync the second screen device with a BD Live-enabled Blu-ray player. If Wi-Fi synchronization is unavailable, Sony offers a manual sync option. But not every second screen system relies on synchronization technology. Start-up company Starling has no plans to use synchronization, says its CEO Declan Caulfield. “When we examined what a sample of second screen users said about synchronization, it was interesting to note that many reactions were negative, especially if the synchronization technology didn’t work. It looks like magic when a device tells you what TV show you’re watching, but all it’s doing is telling you something you already know. When people come together to chat about a TV program, there’s already a high degree of synchronization between them.”


A number of Hollywood studios have also developed second screen-enabled Blu-ray titles, which come with extra content that is viewed on the second screen. The studios hope that by providing second screen content only on sell- through titles, consumers will purchase rather than rent. Disney has launched a handful of second screen titles including Bambi and Tron Legacy, while Universal’s second screen titles like Fast Five and Tower Heist use a pocket Blu app, which allows an iPhone to control the Blu-ray title, and gives access to extra content related to the movie. The pocket Blu app also works with an iPad, iPod Touch, Android smartphones and tablets, PCs and Macs.

Sony Pictures Home Entertainment’s Smurfs Blu-ray release offers Smurf-O-Vision second screen fun activities. The Weinstein Company’s The King’s Speech uses Technicolor’s MediaEcho second screen app for features such as bonus streaming audio and video content, audio commentary excerpts, behind the scenes information, actor profiles, connection to IMDB and other online databases, social media integration and e-commerce.

Jim Bottoms, Director, Futuresource Consulting, says that while he can see a compelling case for live TV shows embracing the second screen, the jury is still out for Blu-ray titles, “There’s a lot of experimentation going on – it’s like the early days of BD Live. The challenge is whether there’s something people can be doing that relates to the movie at the same time. It’s not proven that consumers want it.”

Some second screen apps, like Yahoo’s IntoNow, require second screen users to check-in and notify their friends what they’re watching, but most systems use what Shah describes as “deep engagement,” which can automatically connect users to others watching the same television show, for example, by displaying Twitter feeds related to the programme.

Cinram’s 1K Studios is developing a second screen app for Blu-ray titles, and Matt Kennedy, 1K Studios President, says that while second screen apps are currently used to support the TV content, he foresees a time when, “The app could provide the primary content on your second screen device, and the film on the television screen is the supporting content.”

Some wonder if second screen will turn out to be a fad or something that is used only by younger (under 35) consumers. But few think that second screen will disappear, and Shah says, “With most new technologies, it’s the young people who embrace it first. But then it spreads to adjacent demographics and beyond. Facebook started out with a college demographic – today, the fastest growing user base is people over 60.”


Still many questions remain, including: who are the likely winners and losers in the second screen market? Shay Fan a member of the marketing team at Miso, a social TV platform, says, “Success will come when someone figures out the magic formula for ‘stickiness’ – something that will make users want to stay and interact with content. With so much competing for our attention, it will be a difficult, crowded industry.”

Toeman adds, “I think all the traditional players will remain winners for quite some time to come, it’s their game to lose really. This is a big challenging space, and I think success will come from the companies who best understand what consumers actually want to do with their time and how they enjoy watching TV. Those who are trying to shape or shift behaviours will have an uphill battle, as well as those who pay too much attention to hype, and not enough to reality.”

Social Search & Discovery – Psychodynamic Heuristics

Everyone agrees that social TV needs to be measurable. Advertisers need to secure their investments based on return value. A mobile device acts as a digital extension of each individual these days, which means that mobile phones are the gateway to accessing preferences, interests and behaviors that are unique to each individual. Mobile devices and secondary screens will have an essential role in the delivery of interactive multimedia and bidirectional communication by acting as portals to the individual. The mobile device is a pivotal point of access for bidirectional feedback, between the TV and the viewer, and between a company and a consumer.

I encounter and hear the same dilemma constantly, that there are so many channels, but there’s nothing on! This perpetual predicament indicates that there is a dire need for services that assist viewers in the “search” process by navigating through content sources. Existing companies across the TV spectrum are investing in technology and new services that help narrow down the plethora of sources by curating content. Currently, a popular form of search is through the use of a word cloud or tag cloud. This visual selection strains metadata down to generate suggestions directly related to the individual’s desired mix. Spotify uses this for it’s radio feature and Cablevision recently launched a channel to help navigate available content in this style. It’s a start, but I’ll be impressed when I’m offered entertainment suggestions from all available sources, such as: linear TV, DVR, On Demand, Pay-per-view, OTT streaming, web UGC, household cloud storage, game consoles, etc… The TV needs to be smart and exploited for its mechanical assets by deploying navigational pivots that intuitively make input switching a stress of the past.

TV today is static. The medium is mass-produced and often unrelated to my life on the surface. Search may cater to a viewer’s current mood, but discovery is what encourages the viewer to advance during the decision-making process. I learn about new music via my friends on Spotify and find new photos via my friends on Instagram. Both services are socially powered by leveraging communities on Facebook and Twitter to generate relatable content. Where is the Spotify/Instagram format for TV/Film/Games? The power of peer-to-peer influence can drive new consumers to products and maintain loyal users by providing a social value exchange.

Viewers are craving features that help put all that TV static into a dynamic social context. This is the element of “discovery.” In my opinion, discovery occurs when the information presented is surprisingly related to the viewer(s) own preferences and socially comparable to those in their respective network. Keynote speaker at the TVOT show (NYC 2011), Andy Mitchell, displayed a slide that said, “Friend to friend discovery drives more value than your average promotional campaign.” Facebook is a proven source for such social insights. Social discovery will be a key component in the content discovery process of the future.  To execute insightful discovery, the connected TV needs to become socially aware by accounting for both the physical and the virtual social experience.

The Physical. Decision-making is a frustrating process. Personally, I waste plenty of time searching through content, reading descriptions, watching previews and consulting reviews in order to select something that will also appeal to both my parents and myself, sometimes with a preteen sister in the mix! A true “smart TV” should assist me in this search and discovery process. The connected TV and all OTT services need to be able to account for multiple users. TV communication with surrounding mobile devices can establish the necessary touch-points individually seated on the couch. The smart TV needs to detect surrounding devices, process multiple accounts/preferences, extract value from those data sets and produce recommendations that are customized specifically to the unique viewing group.  A true social TV experience will be able to search through all available content, cater suggestions to the physical social group and compare generated content against associated virtual networks. This would truly reduce wasted time in the decision making process, increase users’ enjoyment by serving the physical group interest, facilitate communal content discovery and encourage mobile sharing for all viewers in the physical group. The same multi-user sensory system can propel interactive communication from the main unit (TV) to all peripheral devices (Mobile) to enable gamification, provide companion content and offer contextual commerce. ACR (Automatic Content Recognition) will soon be built into the TV and automatically extend engagement by offering companion content to peripheral mobile screens in the detected network. What technology do you think is best for bidirectional communication in a personalized area network?

The Virtual. Virtual communities influence the user(s) in the decision-making process by offering social validations. Validations can emerge from the public (out-group) and from the user’s personalized network (in-group). For example, visible and accessible contributions, like ratings/reviews, are perceived as a credible source because strangers in society become peers in a shared content community. An app given 4 stars from over 2,000 users will impact a potential consumer’s decision to purchase the product because the individual will impulsively acquiesce to the collective groupthink, based on scale. Although there is power in numbers, the true investment value will be in leveraging private social communities, where familiar faces naturally attract attention and interest. Motivation and incentive are heightened when the context of a decision is personalized by emotional connections to real world relationships. Social quality is a trusted in-groupsource, whereas; social quantity is a credible out-group source because the large scale endorses pubic opinion. Incorporating both public and private communities will offer valuable guidance during the search process and offer influential content suggestions for the multi-user group.

Connected TV needs to establish seamless communication with participating mobile devices. Then the smart TV needs to detect the multiple accounts engaged with their respective various social networks, compare multimedia content relationships on the social graph and extract presentable value. It won’t happen overnight, but refining the search process to become socially aware of both the physical and virtual connections will uncover psychodynamic insights in how information flows as well as perception of multi-device heuristic models. Early models will begin to establish expectations and influence viewers’ behaviors and habits. Connected TV and social TV implementation will lead to targeted marketing campaigns that strategically extend reach across screens and utilize the interactive feedback loop for localized and personalized fulfillment.

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